Home Money Introduction to market indices: Nifty, Sensex, and others

Introduction to market indices: Nifty, Sensex, and others

Different Types of Stocks: Common, Preferred, Blue-chip, etc.

With its massive impact on the finances of many buyers, the stock market is an integral part of the economy. In the middle of the complex structure of the market, stock market indexes stand out as essential instruments that direct individual choices on investments. 

What are exactly stock market indices?

Stock market indices are statistical tools that track financial market movement fluctuations. The indices show market segments or market performance. An index of the stock market is built by picking comparable firms or equities that match the present criteria. 

Each stock market index is based on industry, sector, market capitalisation, and other factors. Each index tracks its constituents’ price and performance. If stock prices rise, so does the index as a whole.

An overview of the Sensex and Nifty

The SENSEX is a stock market index that tracks the performance of companies listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE). The Stock Exchange Sensitive Index (SENSEX) tracks the market performance of the top 30 firms. It includes equities from 13 industries.

The National Stock Exchange (NSE) index NIFTY tracks all NSE equities. National Stock Exchange Fifty is what Nifty refers to. It tracks the top 50 National Stock Exchange corporations and covers 24 sectors with equities.

What are the different types of indices of the stock market?

The following are different types of indices on the market:

  1. Sectoral index

    BSE and NSE indices for sector businesses are good. The S&P BSE Healthcare as well as the NSE Pharma are reliable indices of pharmaceutical industry trends. Other examples are the S&P BSE PSU as well as the Nifty PSU Bank Indices. These indices track all listed stocks of the public sector banks in India. No exchange must offer equal indices for all sectors, although this is a significant reason.

  2. Benchmark index

    The particular Nifty 50 index, involves the 50 best-performing stocks, while the BSE Sensex index comprises the 30 best-performing stocks, showing what the NSE as well as the BSE are doing. The benchmark index of stocks uses the finest criteria to govern their chosen firms. Thus, they are the most dependable source of market information. 

  3. Market cap index

    As a selection criterion, few benchmarks use a company’s market capitalisation. In the stock market, market capitalization means how much a company is worth. SEBI-defined small-cap indices like the S&P BSE as well as the NSE small-cap 50 include smaller firms.

How are indices actually created?

Equities with comparable market capitalizations, corporate sizes, or sectors comprise a stock market index. After selecting a stock, the index is calculated. However, each stock has a different pricing and price range. 

Thus, adding stock prices does not calculate the index value. Hence, stock weighting occurs. The index weights each stock by market capitalization or price. The weight determines how stock price changes affect the index. 

Importance of a Stock Market Index

Stock Indices gauge the market. It lets you understand market emotions and moods to detect patterns and select where to invest.

  1. Facilitates benchmarking: Many market investors and traders use indices to analyse investments.
  2. Minimising risk: One may reduce investment risk by reviewing performance.
  3. Improving the market’s performance: Indices evaluate market performance using multiple factors.
  4. Stock grouping: Indices let you identify various stocks based on market performance.


Stock market indexes are desirable and necessary. They let corporations invest safely and efficiently. Indices alleviate investors’ stress and help them through the initial phase of stock market investing. 

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